Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize is best described as an international prize awarded by the Norwegian Nobel Committee. This is done in accordance to guidelines highlighted in Alfred Nobel’s Will. It is one among the 5 Nobel Prizes created by Alfred Nobel, a Swedish armaments manufacturer and inventor.
Since 1901, the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded every year to those who have performed the best or most work for reduction or abolition of standing armies, for promoting and holding peace congresses and fraternity between nations.
As per Nobel’s will, the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize is chosen by Norwegian Nobel Committee which is compromised of 5 members appointed by Norway parliament. Since 1990, this prize is awarded on 10th December every year in Oslo City. Formally1947-89, the Prize was awarded in University of Oslo Faculty of Law Atrium, the Parliament (1901-1904) and Norwegian Nobel Institute (1905-1946).
Alfred Nobel died in 1896 and to date there is no explanation as to why he included peace in the prize category. He was a chemical engineer for this reason the physics and chemistry categories were obvious choices but not the peace category.
However, according to the Nobel Committee, his friendship with a peace activist, Bertha von Suttner who later won the prize might have influenced his decision to include peace in the list. Nobel scholars though argue that it was his way of compensating for developing forces that were destructive.
Selection and nomination
Every year people who are qualified are invited by the Nobel Committee to submit their nominations for the prize. The Nobel Foundation statute specifies categories for individuals eligible to make nominations and they include:
- National assembly’s members, governments and Inter-Parliamentary Union members.
- Institut de Droit International members
- Norwegian Nobel Institute former permanent advisors
- Past and present Norwegian Nobel Committee members
- Professors of social sciences, history, theology, law and philosophy in universities, international affair institutes, peace research directors and university presidents.
- Members of ICC at The Hague and Permanent Court of Arbitration.
Nominations are supposed to be presented at the start of February of every award year. Nominations which are made by Nobel committee members are submitted to the date when they hold the meeting after the deadline.
205 nominations were made in 2009, 237 in 2010 and 241 in 2011. The statues of the Foundation do not permit divulgence of information about investigations, nominations or considerations used toward the prize made public for a maximum 50 years after awarding of the prize. One hundred and twenty six laureates have been awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize 94 times between 1901 and 2013. This includes 25 organizations and 101 individuals. Note that the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for refugees have received the prize 2 times as such there are twenty two individual organizations that have been awarded the prize.
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Every year, the Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset) are given to people and institutions around the world. These prizes are for the study of science and for world peace. The science prizes include Literature, Science, and Medicine. The Nobel Prize was started by Alfred Nobel. His 1895 testament (or will) gave money for the Prizes. The Nobel Foundation now controls the money. The Foundation asks different committees or academies to decide who receives the prizes. For many people, a Nobel Prize is a very great honor. People who receive a Nobel Prize are called "Nobel laureates".
Each prize winner gets a medal, a diploma and a sum of money. In 1901, the winners of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK. This is same as 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the winners were awarded a prize of 10,000,000 SEK. The awards are presented in Stockholm, Sweden, in a ceremony on December 10. This day is the anniversary of Nobel's death.
Prize categories and winners[change | change source]
These are the committees and institutions who decide which people receive a Nobel Prize:
The Nobel Prize in Economics was not a part of Nobel's will. It was started in 1969 by Sveriges Riksbank, the Bank of Sweden. The bank donated money to the Nobel Foundation for the Economics Prize in 1968. The Economics Studies Prize is in the memory of Alfred Nobel. It is awarded each year with the other Nobel prizes.
Interesting Nobel laureates[change | change source]
Some people have received more than one Nobel Prize. They are:
- As a group, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times: in 1917, 1944, and 1963. The first two prizes were given the group's work during the world wars. The third was awarded at the year of its 100-Year Anniversary.
Some families have received multiple laureates.
- The Curie family received 5 Nobel Prizes. They are:
- Gunnar Myrdal – for Economics in 1974 and his wife Alva Myrdal –for Peace in 1982
- J. J. Thomson – for Physics in 1906. He was the father of George Paget Thomson who received the prize for Physics in 1937.
- William Henry Bragg shared the Prize for Physics in 1915 with his son, William Lawrence Bragg.
- Niels Bohr received the Prize for Physics in 1922. His son Aage Bohr received the Prize for Physics in 1975.
- Manne Siegbahn received the Prize for Physics in 1924. He was the father of Kai Siegbahn who shared the Prize for Physics in 1981.
- Hans von Euler-Chelpin shared the Prize in Chemistry in 1929 with Arthur Harden. Euler-Chelpin's son, Ulf von Euler, received the Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1970.
- C.V. Raman received the Prize for Physics in 1930. He was the uncle of Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar who received the Prize for Physics in 1983.
- Arthur Kornberg shared the Prize with Severo Ochoa for Physiology or Medicine in 1959. Kornberg's son, Roger, received the Prize for Chemistry in 2006.
- Jan Tinbergen received the Prize for Economics in 1969. He was the brother of Nikolaas Tinbergen, who shared the Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1973 with Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch.
- Nelson Mandela and F. W. de Klerk received the Nobel Peace Prize for their works during the civil rights revolution in South Africa in 1993.
- The youngest person to ever receive the Nobel Peace Prize, or any Nobel prize, is the Pakistani girl activist Malala Yousafzai, who was 17 years old when she received this in October 2014.
References and notes[change | change source]
Other websites[change | change source]
Media related to Nobel Prize at Wikimedia Commons
- ↑Nobel Prizes cannot be awarded posthumously (to people who are no longer living).
- ↑"The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- ↑"The Nobel Prize Amounts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 31 July 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- ↑"The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- ↑ 5.05.1Nobel Prize facts, nobelprize.org, accessed 18 October 2007.
- ↑See "Preface", "The Peace Prize..." and "Linus Pauling: awards, honors, and medals", Linus Pauling and the nature of the chemical bond: a documentary history; Linus Pauling and the international peace movement; Ava Helen and Linus Pauling papers: Special Collections, the Valley Library, Oregon State University, accessed 13 December 2007.
- ↑They discovered the way ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are synthesized in the body. Physiology or Medicine prize 1959, nobelprize.org, accessed 14 January 2008
- ↑Roger Kornberg studied the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription. Chemistry prize 2006, nobelprize.org, accessed 14 January 2008