This chapter provides the information that is relevant to the study. It includes foreign and local literature taken from the internet, some studies that were analyzed by the researchers. This chapter also includes some information taken from books, online newspaper and online articles. A. Foreign Literature History The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 allocated money to bring new technology into schools, including computers. In 1975, Apple Computer first donated computers to schools, and by 1981 educational “drill and practice” programs were developed.
By 1996, many schools were rewired for Internet access. Importance of Computer in Primary Schools The use of computer education in both public and private schools provides students with the technology skills required for college. Students in elementary schools begin learning the basics of computer use in kindergarten Computer in primary schools can expose students to additional resource, such as online encyclopedia, dictionaries, government-sponsored educational sites, learning games and online tutoring. In the future, computers will play an even bigger part in the everyday school agenda.
Experts predict that the time is coming soon when the teacher will be mainly a facilitator of learning while children sit at computers and complete the majority of their class work, homework and special projects. Uses of Computer in Primary Education Computers are becoming common place in school as aids to learning. Children can work individually or in pairs at a computer. Some schools place computers in the classroom, others locate the computers in computer labs. They are used in reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction.
Some programs teach keyboarding. When children use computers to learn mathematics, the computer serves as a tutor, a tool and a tutee. Computers in the classrooms can be used as direct educational tools for online learning or can reinforce previously taught skills. For students struggling with specific skills, there are many games that can be played online to serve as learning interventions. The teacher still guides the process, but it is more student-driven than before. Research * Students in primary school can use computers as sources for reports.
Because of online encyclopedias and magazines, children have access to media that may otherwise be unavailable to them. * Elementary school students learn how to use a computer for research, as well as what websites should be trusted for accurate information. Lists of educational sites are often printed out for student use at home, and aid further exploration of interesting subject matter. Educational Games * Children can use computers for learning that is fun. Thousands of websites offer interactive games in all subject areas.
These are excellent for reviewing and reinforcing skills the teacher has introduced to primary students. Academic Intervention * Teachers can help students struggling with specific skills by downloading activities and tailoring them to each student’s learning style and level. Computers cannot replace a teacher or tutor, but they can augment their ability to meet the needs of the students. Assessment * Teachers can use computers to provide testing materials for their class. They can access the textbook publishers’ online resources or connect with a community of teachers around the country who share ideas and materials.
Class Records * Teachers can maintain student grades, parent contact information and other relevant information through word-processing programs or membership to online record-keeping software at little or no cost. Benefits of Computer in Primary Schools Computers are used in almost every classroom in the country. Some teachers only use email and grade book features, but computers can offer many benefits to teachers and students in primary grades (kindergarten through grade 6). Computers in the classroom are not just there for fun or something for kids to do when their work is finished.
Now the computer can supplement the curriculum. The computer becomes a part of the class work. It’s not a substitute for the teacher but a strong assistant. Many children are able to understand concepts when they are presented on a website that relates to their life in some way. Computer-assisted instruction offers teachers and students another avenue to learn the required academic material. Educational computer programs are available online, at computer stores or through textbook companies. Stick with programs that are user-friendly and hold your students’ attention.
Make sure the programs are at the correct grade level. Decide if you want the computer program to supplement your lesson, practice basic skills, or assist in teaching a new concept and make sure it does just that. For Students: * Computer-assisted instruction provides differentiated lessons for varied levels of learning, including students with disabilities and gifted students. Students are able to work at their own pace while receiving instant feedback which enables them to self correct before moving on to the next skill.
If a student answers incorrectly, the computer programs will provide instructions to assist the student in correcting their work. The programs are interactive and students can work individually or in groups. This allows them to compete with their individual scores or the scores of the students within their group. Students also gain valuable computer skills which will continue to benefit them throughout life. * Students can use digital painting programs to manipulate photos or create icons for classroom charts.
Word processing programs can generate crossword puzzles or word searches, and primary school students can create graphs using mathematical data. Using the Internet, primary school students can access photographs of great art, listen to important recordings, research topics for reports and communicate via email * Elementary school students learn how to use a computer for research, as well as what websites should be trusted for accurate information. Lists of educational sites are often printed out for student use at home, and aid further exploration of interesting subject matter.
For Teachers: * Teachers are better able to track their students’ strengths and weaknesses through computer-assisted learning. Computer programs can enhance the lessons and allow teachers to pick different levels of a program or different programs altogether for students who may be behind or students who are advanced. When students are learning and actively involved with learning, teachers will have less behavior problems in the classroom which in turn sets up a cycle for more learning to take place.
Computer-assisted learning benefits teachers by allowing them to work with small groups of children on a particular skill while the other students in the class are working on their computer program. The nature of the program allows the students to work independently; minimizing distraction to the teacher while she works with the other students. * Primary school teachers can expand lesson plans by incorporating digital resources using computers. Disadvantages Students can become bored and restless if computer programs are overused.
Computer programs can evaluate students’ progress on many levels although it is the teacher’s responsibility to make sure students develop critical thinking skills which are essential to solve problems encountered throughout life. Too much time spent learning through computer programs can also reduce time students spend interacting with each other and their teacher. This can result in less time for learning appropriate social skills. Computer-assisted learning can be a great asset to the classroom and curriculum as long as they are not overused.
Too much of any mode of teaching can lead to boredom and frustration in the students. Use good judgment and find computer programs that enhance the learning process. B. Local Literature Technology’s Impact on Education Computers and the Internet technology have revolutionized the field of education. The importance of technology in schools cannot be ignored. In fact, with the onset of computers in education, it has become easier for the teachers to render knowledge and for the students to grasp it.
Computer technology is used to add a fun-element to education. And it goes without saying that the Internet has endowed education with interactivity. The process of learning in the classroom has significantly become richer as students have access to new and different types of information, can manipulate it on the computer through graphic displays or controlled experiments in ways never before possible, and can communicate their results and conclusions in a variety of media to their teacher, students in the next classroom, or students around the world.
The success of technology in the classroom generate impressive results for students, including improved achievement; higher test scores; improved student attitude, enthusiasm, and engagement; richer classroom content; and improved student retention and job placement rates. This is brought about by software that can be used to render information to the students in an interactive manner. The visual effects provided by the animation and presentation software result in inviting greater interest from the students. Tablet Used for Educating Young.
MANILA, Philippines — La Salle Green Hills and electronics and digital media leader Samsung Electronics Philippines Corporation (SEPCO), take learning to a higher level as they tied up for the school’s eTextbook/Personal Learning Device (PEARL) project, a pioneering program designed to make use of the “digital word” as the new vernacular in the classroom. Now in its pilot phase, the project utilizes the latest tablet PC technology from Samsung as “a Personal Learning Device distinctly driven by digitized curriculum materials. ”
Nowadays every school has to have computers. I don't refer to legal requirementbut to perception. Schools are judged on how many computers they have. It would be more to the point if they were judged on their computer-savvy.
I'm a fan of computers; my computer is a vital part of my work. I believe computer literacy is as important for our children to acquire as any other "basic skill". But I'm not a fan of the wholesale introduction of computers into our schools, particularly the junior ones. How many computers a school has is not the issue - the issue is, how do they use them?
In many cases, the answer is: poorly.
The reasons are simple enough. Foremost, the teachers have insufficient training and experience with computers. Relatedly, computers are not yet an integrated part of the school curriculum, and every school and teacher re-invents the wheel, trying to find good software, trying to work out how to fit it into the classroom curriculum, trying to work out schedules to make sure every student gets a fair go, struggling with the lack of technical support. And of course, in many cases (perhaps most), the computers are old, with the associated problems of being more likely to have technical problems, being slow, limited in memory, incompatible with current software, and so on.
The most important problems schools have with computers:
- lack of financial resources (to buy enough computers, up-to-date computers, enough printers and other peripherals, licenses for good software, technical support)
- the inability of teachers to know how to use the computers effectively
- difficulty in integrating computers into the school / classroom curriculum (problems of use, of scheduling, of time)
Using computers effectively is much more than simply being able to type an essay or produce a graph. Parents and educators who deplore the obsession with computers in schools see computers as eroding children's basic skills and knowledge, because they only see computers being used as copy-and-paste and making-it-pretty devices. But computers have potential far beyond that.
Computers can be used to help:
- extend the scope of searches
- retrieve precisely targeted data with greater speed and accuracy
- increase the amount of data held ready for use
- sift relevant data from irrelevant
- turn data into information
The true value of a computer isn't seen until the user can use it not only as a presentation tool (for making work attractive), and as a productivity tool (for producing work more quickly, effectively, thoroughly), but also as a cognitive tool.
Using computers as cognitive tools
A cognitive tool helps you think.
Many people thought computers would revolutionize education by providing individual instruction in the form of tutorials. In particular, as a means of drilling students. Drilling can be helpful to overlearn a skill to achieve automaticity, but it doesn’t help transfer to meaningful problems. That is, you can learn a skill, you can rote-learn facts, but drilling doesn't help meaningful learning - it doesn't teach understanding.
Although computer tutorials have become somewhat more sophisticated, they still only present a single interpretation of the world - they don’t allow students to find their own meaning. They don't teach students to reflect on and analyze their own performance.
“I do not believe that students learn from computers or teachers — which has been a traditional assumption of most schooling. Rather, students learn from thinking in meaningful ways. Thinking is engaged by activities, which can be fostered by computers or teachers.” (Jonassen, p4)
So, the computer itself isn't the issue - the issue, as always, is what you do with it. For example, when the Web is simply used as a source of material that can be downloaded and pasted without thought, then no, it is not of value. But when the learner searches the Web, evaluates the information, finds the gold in the dross, uses that to construct a knowledge base, to develop meaning, then yes, it is a valuable resource.
Computers can support meaningful learning by
- reducing time spent on mechanical tasks such as rewriting, producing graphs, etc
- helping find information
- helping organize information
- making it easier to share information and ideas with others
Related articles/sites on the Web:
A recent news articles on the subject of compulsory laptops at a Seattle school
New York Times articles about computers in education: Technology critic takes on computers in schools ; Making the most of the Internet's potential for education
An Atlantic monthly column: The computer delusion
A Boston Globe column about computers for young children: Computers, software can harm emotional, social development